Key Leadership Skill – Relationship


There are two kinds of people in this life:
Those who walk into a room and say,
“Well, here I am!”
And those who walk in and say, “Ahh, there you are.”
—- Frederick L. Collins

Above quotation tells nicely about the essence of relationship building. All our worldly activities becomes successful with our best relationships. You might have read a story about a dog that saved its master’s life. How come that is possible for a dog? It is the outcome of master’s great relationship with his dog.

Relationship - Networking

Relationship – Networking

Better relationship leads to better understanding. Understanding gives meaning, comfort and success in life. All of these leads to ultimate happiness which is what everyone wants and searching in this world. In search of meaning for his life Einstein said – “Life isn’t worth living, unless it is lived for someone else.”

It is worth pointing one event from Einstein’s history. Toward the end of his life, he removed the portraits of two scientists — Isaac Newton and James Maxwell — from his wall. He replaced them with portraits of Mahatma Gandhi and Albert Schweitzer. Einstein explained that it was time to replace the image of success with the image of service.

Networking is part of leaders everyday life. Building relationship is most important for their success. Out of those two types quoted start of this article – which one is yours? Are you the one extending help? or Are the one getting more help from others?

Are you mostly trying to make yourself happy? or are you interested in the happiness of those around you? Look around. Closely watch all Leaders around you. It is obvious that, in their life, service occupies most of their time than self-centered activities.

Foundation of Leadership lies on the Relationship between Leader and Follower. It is another key skill for any leader. Strength of relationship of leader and follower decides the levels of commitment & involvement towards the vision. This eventually brings unbreakable bond that leads to success.

Success Lesson from John C.Maxwell


It is excellent narration about “Successful people know their purpose of Life” by John C.Maxwell in a Leadership Conference.

Part 1:

 

Part 2:

Transformational leadership Studies & Hypotheses


Leadership is such an wonderful area of study where the exploration happens everyday endlessly! Some theories become old and obsolete – some theories are debatable – some theories are profoundly interesting. Compared to other theories, Transformational leadership is somewhat new, explored everyday due to its popularity, interesting in nature and there is an easy way to get results using Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire™ (shortly MLQ™).

MLQ™ is the most widely used instrument to assess transformational leadership theory [9] and “is considered the best validated measure of transformational and transactional leadership” [10- p. 338]. With the help of MLQ™, leadership behavior can be evaluated and trained accordingly. MLQ™ has history from 1980s. Right now, MLQ™ Form 5X (developed by Bass & Avolio. 1995)[8] and its modified versions are used for transformational leadership studies.

Here is the steps: Start with a question on leadership & its relationship with something. Then circulate MLQ™ to target audience. Get the results and compare it against your assumptions. Create your Hypotheses.

Here are few examples:

Question: Is Similarity in Leadership Related to Organizational Outcomes? [4]

Hypotheses:

H1:  Perceived similarity between superiors and their leaders with respect to transformational leadership is: 1) positively related to positive outcomes, and b) negatively related to negative outcomes.

H2:  In addition to perceived leadership, perceived similarity between superiors and their leaders explains unique variance in outcome variables.

H3:  The correlations between transformational leadership and outcomes can be ranked as follows:  SHTL – SLTL / DHTL – DLTL.

Question: Gender differences in transformational leadership among the field leaders of New South Wales Police students [5]

Hypotheses:

Female leaders would attract universally higher ratings on factors thought to be associated with greater effectiveness as a leader. That is, it was expected that female police leaders would be viewed as being more transformational and less laissez-faire than males.

Furthermore, it was expected that female leaders would attract higher effectiveness ratings and that followers would be more satisfied with their female leaders.

Ultimately, followers who had female  leaders would also be expected to expend a higher degree of effort at work/in training.

Question: What mechanisms explain the positive effect of transformational leadership?[6]

Hypotheses:

H-1 Transformational leadership has a positive effect on job satisfaction.
H-2 This impact is partially mediated through job characteristics and intrinsic work motivation.
H-2-1 Transformational leadership has a positive effect on job characteristics.
H-2-2 Job characteristics have a positive effect on intrinsic work motivation.
H-2-3 Intrinsic work motivation has a positive effect on job satisfaction.

Job characteristics partially mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfaction. This was not found for intrinsic work motivation. The results of this study underline the impact of transformational leadership on perceived job characteristics and employees’ job satisfaction.

NOTE: MLQ™ is trade marked product and you can contact Mind Garden® for further enquiry – Mind Garden® is a registered trademark of Mind Garden, Inc. All the hypotheses work are outcome of respective authors work and not my opinion on those questions.

References:

1. Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire™ – The benchmark measure of transformational leadership – Bernard M. Bass & Bruce J. Avolio – from web site URL: http://www.mindgarden.com/products/mlq.htm

2. The Full Range Leadership Model™ – http://www.mlq.com.au/flash_frlm.asp

3. 41 5 Transactional and transformational Leadership – document retrieved from web site URL – http://www.diss.fu-berlin.de/diss/servlets/MCRFileNodeServlet/FUDISS_derivate_000000001791/05_05_kapitel.pdf;jsessionid=E9EEB7BF0A73678BF5AC450F3F84F2F2?hosts=

4. Is Similarity in Leadership Related to Organizational Outcomes?  The Case of Transformational Leadership March 28, 2005 – document retrieved from web site URL –

http://leadershipcenter.osu.edu/library/publications/leadership-discoveries/2005/march-2005-is-similarity-in-leadership-related-to-organizational-outcomes-the-case-of-transformational-leadership

5.Gender differences in transformational leadership among the field leaders of New South Wales Police students – document retrieved from web site URL – http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.89.1734&rep=rep1&type=pdf

6. The influence of transformational leadership on job satisfaction: The mediating role of Job characteristics and intrinsic work motivation Bösch Walser, R., & Heilmann, T., Social and Economic Psychology, University of Zurich – document retrieved from web site URL – http://www.psychologie.uzh.ch/sowi/team/heilmann/documents/BoeschHeilmann_Poster_eawop2009.pdf

7. DEMO profile of MLQ output http://www.testcentral.ro/files/mlq_f_en.pdf

8. Bass, B. M. and Avolio, B. J. 1997. Full range leadership development: Manual for the multifactor leadership questionnaire, CA, Mind Garden.

9. Kirkbride, P. 2006. ‘Developing transformational leaders: the full range leadership model in action’, Industrial and Commercial Training, Vol. 38, No. 1 pp.23-32.

10. Ozaralli, N. 2003. ‘Effects of transformational leadership on empowerment and team effectiveness’, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 24, No. 6, pp 335-344.

McGregor’s Management Gem – Theory X and Theory Y


“Who Am I?”

This is the first best question each human encounters in different situations in life. Many researchers gave explanation on how to find answer who you are in different perspectives. In human resource management and motivational perspective McGregor presented a theory called “Theory X-Y”. Theory X-Y basically divides management styles based on two different sets of worker assumptions into ‘Theory X’ generally known as ‘Authoritative style’ and ‘Theory Y’ generally known as ‘Participative style’. Though McGregor derived his theory from functions of military and catholic churches in 1960s, this theory still holds true to all organizations even today.

 

Theory X

 

“The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if he can.” – [1 – p. 33]

This theory assumes the average worker is lazy, dislikes work and will do as little as possible. Managers must closely supervise and control through reward and punishment. In this type of management style performance results are bad. 

When I review my management style in my initial managerial career, unfortunately I fall under this category. As I was treated like that by Manager, I thought that this (Theory X) was the only way for getting the work done from the team. I used to closely monitor and control every team members work, didn’t delegate mostly, even delegate I kept on pinging them for status. Even now, sometimes I feel I am following it when the project schedules are very tight.

 

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Theory Y

 

“The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest. The average human being does not inherently dislike work…

Man will exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which he is committed.” – [1 – p.47]

This theory assumes workers are not lazy, want to do a good job and the job itself will determine if the worker likes the work. Managers should allow the worker great latitude, and create an organization to stimulate the worker. If individuals are given freedom, certainly there is room for increased productivity.

I am practicing Theory Y for past 1 year. Having said that it is not always possible to go by Theory Y as it is challenging in managing demoralized team members. Switching of styles is required based on current situations instead of stamping oneself as Theory X or Theory Y manager.

There is an excellent explanation available in Reference [2]. 

References:

1. The Human Side of Enterprise by Douglas McGregor, McGraw-Hill, 1960

2. Douglas McGregor – Theory X-Y by Business Balls web site – http://www.businessballs.com/mcgregor.htm