Leadership is all about making decisions, conceiving vision, setting goals, laying paths to reach the goal, and making all efforts with followers in achieving it. Effective Leadership requires taking situation based decisions. An individual will be accepted as Leader when his ideas, suggestions and advise are more appropriate to the situation. Decision taken under particular situation may not hold good for all situations & it may give different results in different situations.
How will you get expected output from your decision on particular thing ? What factors that affect making a good decision? In what situations I need to get consultation from others or to make own decision? How do I get commitment from my followers on particular decision?
Vroom-Yetton-Jago Normative Decision Model help us to answer above questions. This model identifies five different styles (ranging from autocratic to consultative to group-based decisions) on the situation & level of involvement. They are:
Autocratic Type 1 (AI) – Leader makes own decision using information that is readily available to you at the time. This type is completely autocratic.
Autocratic Type 2 (AII) – Leader collects required information from followers, then makes decision alone. Problem or decision may or may not be informed to followers. Here, followers involvement is just providing information.
Consultative Type 1 (CI) – Leader shares problem to relevant followers individually and seeks their ideas & suggestions and makes decision alone. Here followers’ do not meet each other & leader’s decision may or may not has followers influence. So, here followers involvement is at the level of providing alternatives individually.
Consultative Type 2 (CII) – Leader shares problem to relevant followers as a group and seeks their ideas & suggestions and makes decision alone. Here followers’ meet each other and through discussions they understand other alternatives. But leader’s decision may or may not has followers influence. So, here followers involvement is at the level of helping as a group in decision-making.
Group-based Type 2(GII) – Leader discuss problem & situation with followers as a group and seeks their ideas & suggestions through brainstroming. Leader accepts any decision & do not try to force his idea. Decision accepted by the group is the final one.
Vroom & Yetton formulated following seven questions on decision quality, commitment, problem information and decision acceptance, with which leaders can determine level of followers involvement in decision. Answer to the following questions must be either ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ with the current scenario.
1.Is there a quality requirement? Is the nature of the solution critical? Are there technical or rational grounds for selecting among possible solutions?
2.Do I have sufficient information to make a high quality decision?
3.Is the problem structured? Are the alternative courses of action and methods for their evaluation known?
4.Is acceptance of the decision by subordinates critical to its implementation?
5.If I were to make the decision by myself, is it reasonably certain that it would be accepted by my subordinates?
6.Do subordinates share the organizational goals to be obtained in solving this problem?
7.Is conflict among subordinates likely in obtaining the preferred solution?
Based on the answers one can find out the styles from the graph.
1. Vroom, V. H. & Jago, A. G. (1988). The new leadership: Managing participation in organizations. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice Hall.
2. Vroom, V. H. & Yetton, P. W. (1973). Leadership and decision-making. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
3. Vroom-Yetton Contingency Model – Nov 29 ’05 – Link: http://www.epinions.com/content_4584087684
4. House, Robert J. and Aditya, Ram N. (1997) The Social Scientific Study of Leadership: Quo Vadis. Journal of Management. Link: http://www.implementer.com/implementer/web/step4_c/persuade-decrational.htm